Chimpanzees live in a multi-male social system, one of three main social grouping types recognized in primates. Using a relaxed form of this system, commonly referred to as a fission-fusion society. Chimpanzees often disperse into smaller parties that constantly change in size and composition throughout the day.
This allows community members to group, regroup and separate during their daily search for food and to maintain social relationships and protect their territories.
Adult cycling females, and more commonly adolescent females, show a strong tendency to disperse into the range of adjacent or non-adjacent communities (i.e. communities/ populations other than their own that occur beyond their own community home range). Female chimpanzees may leave their natal community permanently or temporarily when they are in estrus, and are usually attracted to high-ranking males in neighboring communities. Males remain in their natal groups from birth until death (with some exceptions) or transfer with their mothers into neighboring communities as juveniles. Dispersal may be influenced by the carrying capacity of the home range, distance to other communities, sex ratios, and genetic structure of the population. Evidence also suggests that females avoid mating with close relatives, which may also promote movement to new groups